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The Google Authenticator PAM module allows you to use time-based Google Authenticator passwords with various Linux services, including SSH.

In recent years, multifactor authentication (MFA) has been a hot topic in information security, with many organizations and software services now making it a requirement. To achieve MFA, two or more authentication factors must be provided by a user to pass authentication. These factors include something you have, something you know, something you are, somewhere you are, or something you do.

Many organizations have turned to the Google Authenticator tool to implement MFA using a time-based one-time password (TOTP). Using TOTP with Google Authenticator satisfies the “something you have” authentication factor because TOTP requires a device in the user’s possession (e.g., the user’s Android smartphone or iPhone.) Adding a regular user password to satisfy the “something you know” authentication factor provides the second factor to achieve MFA. Many software as a service (SaaS) providers, such as GitHub, AWS, and Microsoft Azure, support Google Authenticator as an option for MFA.

At a high level, TOTP works by having a secret key that is generated on a service and shared with a device. The TOTP algorithm with two inputs, the secret key plus the system’s Unix time, results in a one-time password known by both the device and the service. A new password is typically generated every 30 or 60 seconds.

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